Determination of Corruption Level Anticorruptology
The controlling measures of corruption can be prescribed after clear understanding of how and in which level the corruption is plaguing in the country. The nature of corruption of one country does not need to be cent percent similar to another country. Different countries have different political, social and economic situations. So, the nature of corruption is found different in different countries. Corruption level of the developed and developing countries is different from each other. Developing countries have greater risk than the developed ones in terms of effects of corruption.
It is difficult to determine the corruption level because the origin of corruption is human’s mentality. Human mentality is very sensitive and conduct of it is determined by the rising and falling in the attitude. The waves of attitude can’t be seen but can be realized. The technology to realize the waves of attitude is developed by the science of anticorruption. It is necessary to determine corruption level to make the principles of anticorruption powerful and strong. In spite of the different corruption level of developing and developed countries. It has tried to ascertain corruption level of developing countries in this chapter.
- General transaction of bribe,
- Corruption in the administrative sector,
- Corruption in the government contract and tender,
- Corruption in the judiciary,
- Institutional corruption,
- Corruption in the NGOs and INGOs,
- Corruption in the social sector,
- Corruption in the economic sector,
- Corruption in the political sector.
It is worldwide practice to give and take bribe. It is also a form of corruption because bribe refers to the immoral or illegal transaction of something (money, goods or other properties). This simple conduct is found all over the world. Whatever they transact illegally is a primary form of corrupt conduct. Giving and taking bribe is divided into three categories:-
- Transaction or bribe done internationally
- Customized bribe or transaction,
- Transaction or bribe done by Necessity
Taking money or other goods intentionally from the clients in return of the service provided by the employees of the governmental and / or non-governmental organizations is called bribe. In this condition, the service receivers give bribe intentionally or unintentionally to accomplish his/her work. Both bribe givers and takers are criminals from the legal perspective in this form of transaction. Though, it is a transaction of petty bribe, it’s preliminary stage of corruption .This type of conduct is found in almost all the countries of the world.
b. Customized transaction or bribe:-
Giving excess money than actual amount of service charge to the service provider by the client is known as the customized bribe. This type of corrupting activity is found at the border security police stations, border check posts, and custom offices and so on. Both money and goods are used in this type of additional payment. This custom is socially accepted but it is also a form of corruption.
c. Transaction or Bribe done by necessity:-
The service providers charge certain amount of money from the clients to meet their necessity, if the salary and allowance is not sufficient. The government’s employees, teachers and even doctors of developing countries take this type of additional money or goods in return of service they provide. It is also a form of corruption.
2. Corruption in the Administrative sector:
The administrative sector is also called civil service sector. At present, the employees in the administrative sector are also called civil servants. But reversely, they work as their boss. A person, group or organizations responsible for providing government service should directly serve the citizens. In the developing countries, the governmental service providers exercise power. So, their decision is important as it can result in benefit and loss for the common citizens. Thus, citizens give bribe for a benefit and service providers develop tendency to get after taking bribe.
The administrative sector is the center for corruption in developing countries. It is described with the following topics:
- The relationship between client and service provider,
- Execution of decision,
- Budget disbursement, embezzlement and reimbursement,
- Use of quasi-judicial authority.
a. The relationship between client and service provider:
The relationship between service provider and client is misinterpreted as the relationship between a ruler and a ruled. Those having administrative authority behave as a ruler in the developing countries. The administrative agencies rule over the citizens with the support of law, act, regulation and traditional custom. The contract between administratively powerful and powerless is illegal and corrupt.
b. Execution of decision:
The decision made by the government for the welfare of citizens is executed by the administrative sector. But, the administration acts as a dictator due to the authority vested in him/her .Corruption goes up due to the same dictatorial attitude of service providers.
c. Budget disbursement, embezzlement and reimbursement:
The administration has financial authority. The budget for development activity, public procurement and contract is disbursed and its record is kept by administration. Employees who have financial and administrative power fall in allurement. Therefore, tax collection and other reimbursement are under the responsibility of administration. They may work with self-interest while collecting tax or providing other services and there is possibility of increment of corruption.
d. Use of quasi- judicial authority :
Quasi- judicial authority is provided to the administration in almost all countries. Having authority to make the judicial decision based on the existing law, the decision made by administration may not assure justice. In these cases, there is maximum possibility of corruption.
3. Corruption in the government contract and tender:
Administration is responsible for the development activities and for conservation and utilization of natural resources. There is maximum corruption in the government contract and tender whether it’s developing or developed country .There is transaction of ten to fifteen percent commission in the government contract and tender in the developed countries. On the other hand, it’s fifty to seventy five percent in developing countries. It means only less than twenty-five percent works is actually performed under the government contract in the developing countries.
Similarly, there is indefinite amount of corruption in the contract of utilization of natural resources .The detail of corruption in this sector in developing countries is explained below:
- Contract management and distribution of license,
- Foreign contractor and contract,
- Contraction in the partnership.
Various sorts of contracts are to be done in the area of development activities in the country. In the contracting process from planning to completion of project, corruption occurs at different levels of execution .About fifty percent of total allocated budget is misused by the people involved in the project. There is the bargaining for commission of remaining amount of money while providing license for importing and exporting.
b. Foreign contractor and contract:
Foreign contractors are permitted to execute small and large projects in most developing countries. A big amount of budget is misused in the large-scale projects. Large projects are generally operated with foreign aid or loan. While executing project with foreign aid/loan, the donors themselves choose the construction partners from the beginning to the completion of the work. Moreover, in some projects, the contract is done to give profit to the foreign agency itself. In such type of contract, the country and it's citizens lose a lot and the foreign donor gets benefitted.
c. Construction in the partnership:
It refers to the agreement between the government and individual/or agency of the same country or between government and foreign individual / agency to construct the project by sharing the benefit. The poor countries can’t utilize minerals and natural resources due to lack of capital. In such situation, the feudal people and wealthy pose as businessman, influence ruling political parties and get maximum benefit. In this type of partnership, the concerned country incurs loss but the other party gets highly benefitted. The ruler or ruling party of a poor country allows the natural resources exploited by other person/company/country due to greed. It means the construction partnership leads the country to the great loss.
4. Corruption in the judiciary:
Corruption takes place in the judiciary of developing countries unlike in developed countries. There are four elements responsible for judicial functioning. These elements developed in the European countries. So, the judiciary has not been executed effectively. The four elements are:
- Legal system,
- Judicial process (system),
- The Judge,
- The Lawyer.
The law developed by different European countries during their rule over other countries is still in practice in the developing countries. Some countries tried to change the law in the name of political reformation but still they have not totally done away with the old laws. The laws are ascribed to Britain, France, Spain, Germany and other European nations. The legal system implemented in those nations is in practice in almost all nations of the world.
b. Judicial process (system):-
The Judicial process developed by the European Empires in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is still in practice. The countries, which hadn’t practiced that judicial process, also followed the same European judicial system in the twentieth century. They might have followed that system with the belief that it was scientific judicial process. But it is proven as a curse in the developing countries.
c. The lawyer:-
The lawyers are the pillars of judiciary .The judicial decisions are regarded justifiable only if the lawyers are sincere. But, in 21st century many lawyers utilized the court for unfair gain. They use it as a source of income. The citizens should pay as per the lawyers demand to get justice in the developing countries. It’s negative aspect of judicial system.
d. The judge:-
The word ‘judge’ is indicative of a ‘gentle’, ‘sincere’, ‘rational’ personality with the divine strength. But we can’t find that ideal person in 21st century. Appointment, promotion and facility of judges is similar to the civil services in the developing countries. Because of this reason, qualitative personality of judges may has not developed. Due to the great responsibility and authority but low facility, the judges are misguided by the corrupt lawyers.
5. Institutional Corruption :-
It refers to a group effort of corruption by misinterpreting the existing law or making provision of legal way for the corruption itself. Though institutional corruption is not publicly clear, it has horrible form and affects internally. It does not only damage the economic condition but also jeopardizes the existence of the nation. Thus, it is not common corruption like others; but it’s a great crime to destroy the nation and people.
Institutional corruption is categorized as follows:
- By the groups,
- By the political parties,
- By misinterpreting the existing law,
- By formulating the new law.
The developed form of person-to-person transaction of bribe is a group corruption. The group corruption was later called the institutional corruption. It was accepted as a white-color crime. Group corruption transferred from the developed to developing countries. Some countries have tried to cover it up but some have practiced and accepted it .The poor countries are in trouble due to this group corruption.
b. By The Political Parties:-
The political parties don’t have any source of income. They have to run by donation, gift and aid. All the leaders and cadres of political parties are involved in the voluntary services. The political parties of developing countries aim at climbing to power. They collect money from different sectors of society. When they are in power, they exploit the nation and citizens. But the common citizens don’t understand the indirect corruption done by the political parties.
c. By misinterpreting the existing law :-
The political leaders and cadres in the ruling position misinterpret the existing laws and try to get benefit. For example, the fixed properties or resources of nation can’t be transformed directly but it can be provided in lease by contract .While providing it in lease for a long time, it is as good as transformation of property. The ruling party does these types of corruption, which is regarded as a heinous crime.
d. By formulating the new law:-
The budget of the state cannot be expended without regulations in almost all countries. The ruling political parties and its leaders and cadres want to distribute the budget to make their parties and cadres financially profit. To achieve this goal, they formulate acts and laws to misuse the state fund for their maximum facility and benefit. Similarly, by formulating new laws and acts they handover mineral and natural resources to their henchmen.
6. Corruption in the NGOs and INGOs:-
Non-governmental organizations were established in the western countries to have the works done by any group of people/citizens. Some NGOs became active in their countries but some organizations started to work outside their countries in support of the developing countries as well. The international organizations started to provide a large amount of financial support in the developing countries to extend their influence over them. Some clever and intellectual persons of third world countries started to follow them as their tools. As a result, transaction of corruption started in the poor societies.
Generally, there are not legally recognized NGOs in the developing countries. The International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) started to use the social organizations or other service-oriented organizations as their representatives. As the result, the same social organizations were recognized as Non-Governmental Organizations in the poor countries.
7. Corruption in the Social Sector:-
The social structure in the developing countries is formed by conglomeration of various cultures, classes and races .Wealthy and extremely wealthy is one class and poor and extremely poor is another. The coordinating link between two classes is a traditional culture. But the traditional custom is gradually being displaced by social problems on the increase. The growing social problems are analyzed under the following topics, which can be explained as the mediums to promote corruption in the society:-
- Religion –Culture,
- Communal Organizations,
- Discrimination between the rich and poor.
It refers to custom of living. The custom adopted to spend life happily is religion and continuity of the custom is culture. When the traditional guided by religion and culture started many centuries ago they became instable. Instability created social problems. The poor community followed the religion, belief and culture adopted by the rich community. And gradually, culture became a victim of money.
b. Communal Organization :-
Different communal organizations were formed in the society for racial, communal and regional welfare. Hooligans were born in the name of regional organizations. Different mafia organizations were established in the different sectors of society. As a result, it was felt that these types of organizations have caused increment of corruption in the society.
Education is an inevitable element for human development. But education became like a business as a good source of profit in the developing countries. Private sectors started to exploit the society financially. The common people started to be victimized by the education sector when it became an occupation. The private schools charged a high amount of fees to enable corruption thrive in the society.
Life is secured by the health facility .It must be free of cost but in the developing countries, it has become very costly. One has to spend a large amount of money to get health service in a private health center. People have to pay high cost for health checkup even. That is corruption in a visible form.
e. Discrimination between rich and poor.
A big social problem is faced by the government in developing countries. It springs from inability to remove the gulf between the rich and the poor. Due to existing gap, a poor man wants to earn money at any cost and gets involved in different crimes. He/she disturbs the society from different angles. Some poor earn money by troubling the innocent people. But, some people are opposed to much malpractice. They become rebels to each other unknowingly. In this way, the discrimination between rich and poor has to lad to social problems.
8. Corruption in the Economic Sector:
- Development of a nation takes place by the prosperity in the economic sector. Economic sector include production, distribution, consumption and financial transactions. It has great significance in the development of a nation. It is also a suitable sector to measure corruption. Let’s see what and how corruption has increased in this sector:-
- Traditional Transaction,
- Financial Organizations,
- International Transaction.
There used to be financial transaction in the traditional manner even before the establishment of banks. The farmers used to take seeds of paddy as a loan and after production, they used to return the loan back with the interest. They used to return the paddy itself but not cash. It was the custom practiced in the farming sector. In the business sector, there was a custom of giving and taking loan. The custom of taking loan for festival and other occasions resulted into high-interest charges. Gradually, corruption was created in the traditional transaction as well.
b. Financial Organization :
When financial organizations came in existence, the traditional transaction gradually decreased. The banks spread all over the world within a short duration .But the world financial sector is still in confusion to decide whether banks, private, public or government are good for the country. The banking sector has contributed to the development in the developed countries. However, the corrupting policies in the banking system have thrown many of them in bankruptcy. The banking system has increased in the developing countries. Only those banks flourish. People have not benefitted from the banking sector as expected. The banks charge interest over interest and in a feudal manner, they charge compound interest. So, the debtors are victimized.
In the same way, the insurance companies are exploiting society in the third world countries. But the government is not in the position to penalize them. They are beyond punishment in spite of their financial crimes as the insurance company is affiliated to other countries. In this way, the open corruption in financial sector paralyzes the economic condition of the country. However, there are some renowned financial companies in some countries and their performance is better. Majority of financial organizations haven’t operated according to their objectives.
The slogan “Today’s need is market-oriented economy” has increased the significance of market. The market of developing countries can be operated without control. They want to expand the market with competitive policy as in the developed countries. As a result, the market becomes uncontrolled by market monopoly and mafias. Thus, in many countries, the market is beyond of the controlling power of the government. It is an adverse situation of economic principle.
The number of qualitative manufacturing goods is decreasing and there is growth of industries that manufacture quality-less goods. It is a curse for the developing countries. Although, there is a legal provision to measure the quality, but it is not enforced. Despite of laws and acts, there is no control over private industries. Thus, they are operating without control. There is risk to human life due to contaminated food production and adulteration of medicines. It is a painful situation for the citizens of poor countries.
e. International Transaction :
The present time demands a harmonious relationship among the countries of the world. In this international transaction the law of one country cannot control all movements. Therefore, these types of transactions are risky. In this type of international transaction, a poor country has to face trouble. If this sector becomes weak, not only the economy but the country also suffers from losses.
9. Corruption in the Political Sector:
Political parties are established to run the state affair by a specific philosophy and principle. A party should be transparent, uncorrupted and faithful. It is the main principle of a political party. But it has been seen in the developing countries that a political party is a gang of unproductive, unprofessional and ambitious persons to misuse power. Great leaders are born in some countries but only in a long time. In majority of countries, the political parties are led by irresponsible and indiscreet persons.
At the initial phase, a political party can run by collecting levy from its members and sympathizers. When the party in power or in opposition of parliament, it stops collecting levy. Among the millions of cadres only a few act to ruling power and the rest get displeased. In this condition, the party gets in financial crisis. When a party has unknown source of income, the fund comes from different sources. For example, forceful collection of donation, getting grant from foreign countries, issuing new licenses, permitting new industries, leasing out national heritages, transferring natural resources become new source of income. These are all methods to make political parties rich and citizens poor.
The political parties need a large amount of budget. It needs to pay the whole timer cadres. They have to use the mass media. They need to reach the common people frequently with advertising materials and hoodwink plans to the people .Besides that, they have to be able to collect votes by spending a great amount of money during the election period. These are all compulsory activities the political parties need to do in the developing countries. These activities are corrupt and criminal.
Let’s see in the graphic figure determination of level of corruption:-
That is certified whether the role played by digit 5 which is core. However, this has been increased or is high on the point of digit 9 increasing regularly from 1, which is corruption been form the level 1 to 9. The meaning of digit 5 indicates institutionalization of corruption. In the reality, it can access control or cope, suppress and remove slowly to these all levels of corruption. But, it may be very hard to control, suppress and remove any from corruption that has prevailed institutionally. The reality is it have received the validity. The main target of anticorruptology should be to eradicate corruption prevailed in the form of intuition.