Conclusion and Recommendations Anticorruptology
Almost all the countries of the world experience corruption. There is no country which has not been affected by corruption whether it is a large or small country. But the nature of corruption in developing countries is different from that of developed countries. Corruption in developed countries is invisible but it is visible in small and developing countries. It is crystal clear that the world society has completely been dominated by corruption. It is necessary to get rid of corruption.
- The corruption has unknowingly developed simultaneously with development of human society and it is deep-rooted in the society. It is established so strongly that it is very much difficult to find out its roots. The social reformers, intellectuals and pioneers of society could not find the way to abolish corruption completely. It is the nature of corruption that it grows gradually along with the development of human society. All developed, developing and underdeveloped countries are suffering from corruption. The anticorruptology has emerged when the countries are agitating to get rid of corruption.
- Even though, corruption has extended worldwide and created various problems in society, the governments have shown no serious concern to control and prohibit the corrupt activities. The social pioneers, political leaders and state mechanism itself also could not understand the complexity of corruption. But knowingly or unknowingly, almost all countries of the world made laws for prevention and control of it. Moreover, some countries made provision for constitutional commissions to investigate corrupt activity. In spite of constitutional and legal provisions, corruption could not be curbed. Actually speaking, only law cannot control corrupt behavior. The law can bring the corrupt persons, society and organization only within the parameter of punishment. It collects the proofs, investigates, makes inquiry and penalizes the convicts as per provided by law. Such punishment gives message to the potential corrupt persons that corruption is punishable deed. Law cannot create a situation where no one commits corruption. Therefore it is necessary to create a situation where there is no corruption and suitable environment that discourages such criminal activities.
- The system of colonization by powerful countries over weak countries has been practiced for a long time since ancient period. At present, they have not colonized politically but indirectly the weak countries have been colonized economically and culturally. Due to this system, weak and developing countries have always been victimized by powerful countries. Legally the weak countries are recognized as sovereign countries but they are colonized in practice. In such a situation, the weak/developing countries and their citizens lose their identity. Almost all sectors in such countries suffer from corruption, a social disease. To get rid the miserable condition, a new trend of anti-neo-colonialism must be pursued.
- As non-governmental organizations have been proved auspicious for developed countries, they provide service to the people through those organization. The developing countries try to imitate the same trend of mobilizing NGOs, and consequently the countries and citizens have fallen to the swamp. The founders of NGOs in developing countries make great profit. They work less and make greater gain. Their role in developing countries is suspicious due to higher economic benefit and lower service. They are also charged for selling the national interest and pride. In spite of such charge, they are still active in developing countries. The so-called intellectuals of such countries themselves are the founders and operators of such NGOs. Such NGOs have more disadvantages than advantages for protecting national interests. So, care should be given about the function and role of such organizations. Some NGOs are however operated with good interest. But most of them are established and operated with vested interests of weakening the state and citizens. Therefore, such NGOs should be discouraged.
- Today is the age of democracy. Democracy has been established in almost all the countries of the world. Some communist countries have accepted their political system as democratic governance as well. Even if a single party captures state power, it is identified as the representatives of people. That is why the one-party communist government in some countries should also be accepted as a democratic system by the rest of the world. The political parties themselves are the agents of state power whether it is one party, partyless or multiparty. Therefore political parties must be transparent, ideal and responsible. Some intellectuals and clever persons in poor and developing countries try to capture state power by advocating communism. In this way, such communist and extremist parties capture the state power in many countries. Though they capture state power, the governance system changes into multiparty system. Even if we cannot determine what types of political parties are required to handle the state affair, we have already been convinced that more than one party are compulsory for good exercise of democracy. It does not mean that a dozen of parties would be established and a multiparty democracy would be practiced. In developed countries only two or three parties are active. Therefore only two to four political parties based on principles should exist in developing countries as well. This type of system must be practiced. Provision of limited number of political parties should strictly be implemented to control hundreds of parties from being established in poor and developing countries. If the political parties are limited, they would become sincere, accountable and idealistic for the nation and the people.
- Political science incorporates study of state, state affair and political party in depth. When political science was introduced as a discipline, there was no political party like at present. The political parties were introduced after a long period of time. Political parties were considered essential and hence, they were born. The concept of political parties was introduced into the study of political science only after politics was exploited by political parties. As the concept of political parties was introduced into the area of political science later, the advantages and disadvantages of it had not been studied in depth. Consequently, political parties are started to operate and run by own their principles, guidelines and activities in different countries of the world. Therefore, the problem of uniform principle and guideline was raised. The main problem of political parties is election itself. They need to spend mental, physical and financial resources to publicize their manifesto during election. They are compelled to collect fund for the election. Due to this reason, they commit tolerable and/or untolerable activities and misuse the national property/treasure. Consequently corruption in political sector has increased. Now it is compulsory to include anticorruptology also in the realm of political science to initiate the corruption-controlling measures.
- Economics has a long history. It has been analyzing and interpreting the policy of financial management and economic transaction for a long time. Economics studies economic transaction, production of goods, marketing and so on. But it is silent about illegal income and transaction of such property. Finance has controlled almost all sectors of present society. Similarly, the central focus of corruption is property. When gaining property is emphasized corruption increases. There is influence of corruption in all finance-related sectors. Petty or grand corruption is seen directly or indirectly prevailing in all institutions involved in production, import/export, trade, commercial transaction, financial transaction, exchange of goods and so on. Since anticorruptology supports the study and analysis of such financial crimes, it should be incorporated in the study of economics as well.
- Corruption interferes social and national development unless it is controlled. In the past, if somebody was identified as corrupt, the society used to isolate and neglect him/her. Due to such social norms and values, corrupt persons discontinued to their practice overtly. If they committed corruption, they used to do so clandestinely so that no one would notice it. Because of such social belief, only petty corruption could take place. It was very minor crime. But at present, if one violates law and makes money he spends a prestigious life in spite of a grand corruption he/she committed. Whoever earns great property by corruption, he/she would have higher prestige in the society. Due to this social psychology, corruption is being increased. Sociology studies social behavior, caste, ethnic group, social discrimination and other social problems. But it doesn’t incorporate the study of corruption. Present society has severely been affected by corruption. All people have understood the fact that the cause of most of the problems is corruption. They have understood that corruption should be controlled. In spite of the understanding, anticorruptology has not been included in sociology. Corruption is a social disease. It is compulsory to eliminate it. Considering this fact, anticorruptology should be included in the study field of sociology and other sciences.
- As rural development is significant in developing countries, the study of rural development is introduced in various universities. Since it is a new discipline, almost all developing countries have given priority to it. They have to political reason rural area has not developed well. The study of rural development has not pointed out this bitter reality. There is higher influence of corruption where there is much political interference. Where there is higher rate of corruption, there will be more barrier to rural development. Therefore, anticorruptology assists the study of rural development.
- State mechanism provides pension to the retired civil, military, police, administrative and judicial services to those who retire after long period of nation-service. It is good to provide pension to the nation-servants for their retirement life. But in developing countries, not only the nation-servants but also people’s representatives in political sectors get state facilities throughout their life. Furthermore, former executives spend a luxurious life by utilizing a huge property from state treasure in the name of social security. The top level army, police officials and bureaucrats exploit the lower nation-servants for their domestic works. The higher-level officers treat the lower-level employees as a servant by misusing them in their household works. It is not good at present time. Therefore, this traditional bureaucratic system should be abolished. All the nation-servants should be equally treated and respected.
- The executive body is the main organ among three pillars of state mechanism. Though government is a single whole, there are two facets of it i.e. political leadership and bureaucratic staff. Bureaucracy is established as a permanent government. Public administration is introduced as a discipline of study which would help the bureaucracy to be efficient, capable and immune from interference. Public administration is studied in most of the universities of the world. Bureaucracy, the permanent government, is in fact the government in real sense. It is accepted in almost all countries. The bureaucracy has state policy, guiding principles and federal strategy. All those policies, principle and strategy are accepted as the significant policy of a state. The political government comes and goes. But national policy must not change. That principal policy of a state should be beyond the interference of the political government. The study of public administration includes what roles and responsibilities bureaucrats should play to avoid political influence in the main national policy. But most of the corrupt persons camouflage loyalties with bureaucratic traits. So, anticorruptology would be very significant to keep bureaucracy under the close surveillance.
- Good management is a requirement of the present world. Proper management is required not only in a factory and industry, but also in a business house, financial and marketing sector and so on. There is equal importance of management for commercial organizations, service-oriented health and educational institutions etc. The study of management has become so important that it is directly related to the development and success of an organization. Similarly, bad management’s results in organizational failure. Now human resources need good management. Due to this importance, human-resource management is taught in many universities of the world. Management includes much wider area of study. It is called good management if there is efficient, disciplined, systematic, strategic management. Monitoring, supervision and evaluation are main areas of management. The undisciplined acts, illegal work, irresponsibility, unlawful conducts etc. are considered corrupt activities. Therefore, there is close relationship between management and anticorruptology. It is essential that the policy and principles of anticorruptology are incorporated in the curriculum of management.
- Independent judiciary is guaranteed in a state through the principle of the separation of power. The judiciary plays the role of a parents for people. Jurisprudence has a significant role to strengthen the rule of law. The legislature, the responsible body to make law, can’t realize this true system because the members of legislature-parliament are the representatives of the political parties. Those political representatives want to pass laws as per their petty interests by amending the existing law. Jurisprudence should be alert and control the political representatives from making the law as per their party’s selfish interests. Constitution is the fundamental law of a state. There is a legal principle that any law, which opposes any article of constitution, would be void. But in most of the countries, acts and regulations are enacted or amended to obtain their vested interests of particular political parties. But jurisprudence is silent about what punishment should be imparted on those who make law to meet their selfish interests. The jurisprudence, which includes all types of legal theories, has not adopted any principle regarding the corruption, illegal act, misdeed and abuse of authority. Therefore the policy and principle of anticorruptology should be systematically incorporated in the study of jurisprudence.
- The present age is the age of communication. Journalism was stated to be practiced in almost all countries after the advent of democracy. Started from print media, it developed into to radio, TV and online journalism. Journalism develops in tune with the technological advancement. Journalism plays key role in the democratic countries. Therefore, it is considered a discipline of study. Journalism is defined as the fourth estate of government in democratic countries. Its significance has increased. It has been expanded from simple journalism to study of mass media. It is the responsibility of the academic sector and universities to make it a systematic discipline of study. The world and expression targeted against journalism is ‘yell-journalism’. But now a days, communication-crimes have increased excessively. The media houses/journalism are actively involved in political upheaval, illegal business/profession, protecting black money and promoting tyranny. The media/communication has a great influence whether it is developed or developing country. But mass media has become so corrupt that all concerned authorities have realized that it should be strictly controlled. Therefore, the principle of anticorruptology should be adopted by mass media if we want media to run sincerely, honestly, legally, transparently and faithfully. If the mass media run in right track, the state mechanism will succeed fast.
- Some Asian and European countries were engaged in development of human civilization since ancient time. Human beings are developing a life-style when they learn to survive. European and some Asian countries have prominent role to have such higher level of human development. Spiritualism has a major role in such ancient culture/custom. Consequently the societies have been established based on spiritual belief in such area. The people living in such spiritual society have experienced more happiness, peace and prosperity in their life. For some years, spiritual knowledge is publicly advocated in many countries. The society, devoid of spirituality does not deserve happiness and peace. It is believed that human being has gone thousand years back. The whole society is badly affected by materialistic thinking. Human beings are running to fulfill the materialistic needs. That is why, the present society is trapped in the cyclone of conflict. Human life is severely victimized by immorality corruption has increased in the societies where only materialistic thought is in vogue. Therefore, spiritual knowledge should figure in university curriculum.
- The developed countries manufacture war equipments and sell them to small and weak countries at higher cost. The developed countries promote conflicts among the weak countries. The developed countries incite them to buy war equipment. In this business, the developed countries pay high commission to the ruling figures. Due to this activity, the weak countries and their citizens are highly exploited. They decide to buy war equipments due to the greed of commission even if they are not necessary for them. Because of this reason, the development process of such countries ceases. Production and transaction of war equipments promote corruption. So this activity should be completely stopped.
- A human beings have achieved multi-sectoral development due to the ethical conscience. Likewise, they have succeeded to survive easily because of same wisdom. Culture was developed to systematically run the easy, happy and prosperous life. They could set right path of life style due to the development of art and culture. Realizing the same fact, moral science is developed at present time. Moral science studies human behaviour, manner, beliefs, honesty, human conduct, ethics and humanitarian education. The moral education is not prescribed at lower and elementary level of education. In some countries moral education has been given priority in lower educational level. But most of the countries have not included morality in education. Moral education is related to internal feeling of a person and anticorruptology is concerned with human behavior. Because of this reason, moral education and anticorruptology should be studied by interlinking with each other.
- The trend of interfering and occupying the natural resources of a country by another country is increasing. Every country has complete right and authority over the natural resources belonging to her. But due to the bad policy of powerful countries, they are using the natural resources of poor countries unfairly. Due to the inability of proper utilization of water resource, petroleum, invaluable metal, jewels, minerals, many countries have become poor. Because of this ignorance, the developed countries buy the political officials/leaders of poor countries and exploit the natural resources of those countries. It is surely an exploitative, in justified and corrupt activities. Not all countries are full of natural resources. It is necessary to create the environment to utilize the available resources properly if the political and bureaucratic leaders who are in state power of a country are honest and responsible for the nation with feeling of welfare of citizens, the country can progress like other countries. The reason behind the discrepancy of rich and poor countries is just ignorance and corrupt activity of political leadership of a poor country. If this reality is analyzed by anticorruptology, the discriminating gap between poor and rich countries of the world would be narrowed.
- Today is the age of globalization. A single country cannot provide all the essential commodities. A country needs to depend on other countries in production, construction, market management, import and export of commodities and so on. Natural resources can be transacted and exchanged by agreements and treaties. Similarly, global tender is announced for construction. All these activities are influenced by corruption. Therefore, such agreement, treaty, global tender, exchange of natural resources must be executed sincerely, honestly and justifiably. National and international contracts may sometimes be the rendezvous of corruption. But even if we know that they are the rendezvous of corruption, we cannot stop executing such contracts and agreements. Therefore, such contracts agreements and treaties related activities should be executed on the principles of anticorruptology.
- The focal point of modern democracy is good governance. Good governance means rule of law. But good governance does not only refer to the implementation of law. It further includes protection of the right to information, transparency, public accountability and so on. Even if development of good governance is compulsory for the improvement of democracy, not all democratic countries are focused on it. Some countries have started to exercise the concept of good governance. But some democratic countries do not know even the concept of good governance up to now. Also a country must implement good governance if it wants to strengthen and make the democracy stable. Only the democratic countries, which have adopted and implemented good governance, can flourish the democratic norms and values. Therefore, good governance is the demand of present time.
- With entry into the world of academics with new identity, anticorruptology can easily be introduced in the educational field. Such favourable situation has been created. Introduced itself as a science, there is sufficient possibility to use the formula of both pure and applied/social sciences in anticorruptology. The formula of pure/theoretical sciences i.e. physics, chemistry have been properly used in it. Similarly anticorruptology can be interpreted on the mathematical formula. It has further close connection with humanities. Therefore, curriculum and textbook on anticorruptology for elementary to secondary level of education should be designed. The teaching/learning materials to provide knowledge of anticorruptology should be prepared. Moreover, teaching/learning materials, textbook for higher level also need to be written/prepared to bring anticorruptology at all levels of education. Besides the universities, the state body responsible for education should also focus on production of learning materials, writing of textbooks, introducing the subject in curriculum, teaching and learning anticorruptology at different levels. Since the science of anti-corruption needs to be interpreted from intellectual perspective through study, research, experiment and analysis, all the universities of the world should be responsible to publicize and develop anticorruptology.