Components of Anticorruptology Anticorruptology Home / Anticorruptology / Components of Anticorruptology
2016 11:43
Components of anticorruptology refer to those aspects which play the key role to keep this discipline alive. As different body organs play their active role to keep human body moving, so do the components of anticorruptology to make it functional. If the significant components become functional, anticorruptology achieves its success effectively. The components which energize the anticorruptology are technology, methodology, policy and system. But according to the changed time and situation, other components may also be the parts of this discipline.
These four components can be interrelated as follows:
In the above figure, we can see the technology as mind and the system as the major organ of the body. These two, methodologies and policies are subsidiary organs to energize the technology and the system. Let’s divide the four components into various contents.
Technology     =          Teaching and learning,
Methodology  =          Prevention,
Policy              =          Reward and punishment,
System            =          Politics.
In other words we paraphrase it as;
  1. Teaching and learning technology,
  2. Preventive methodology,
  3. Reward and punishment policy,
  4. Political system.
Let us accept these four components and discuss in detail:-

1.   Learning and teaching technology:
Anticorruptology has emerged to be taught and learnt. In the past, the subject related to anti-corruption was not an area of study. So, it becomes difficult to make anticorruptology as a discipline of study. But, with the advent of anticorruptology, the subjects related to anti-corruption became suitable to be taught and learnt in the intellectual world. Now, it should be gradually developed as a discipline of study. So, until it is taught and learnt from school to university levels, it should be studied in the college level. While starting its study, it can be developed through the primary and stable techniques.
a.   Preliminary stage:
At the preliminary stage, the anti-corruption-related subjects should be linked with other subjects in the master’s degree level of Humanities, Management and Law. Students should be encouraged to carry out dissertation in the area of anticorruptology. Students who have carried out dissertation in this area in the master’s degree level should be encouraged to study doctorate level in anticorruptology. The subjects like political science, economics, sociology, rural development, public administration, management, psychology, ethics, journalism and law etc. can be linked with anticorruptology. So, students studying these subjects can carry out thesis in the area of anticorruptology and then do their Ph.D. in this discipline. Experts of anticorruptology can be prepared in this process.
When anticorruption experts are ready, the course, curriculum and text books of anticorruptology for school to university levels should be designed/written. The area specialist should further study and analyze to make the subject complete.
b.   Stable stage:
When anticorruptology becomes a subject of study, we should manage to stabilize it in the society. For that, anticorruptology should be introduced from the primary level. From the primary level, students should develop their concept of corruption as a social crime. Gradually, at the upper level, they should be able to discriminate corruption from anticorruptology. The textbooks should be written to provide detailed knowledge about it. Likewise, at the higher level, anticorruptology should be taken as a subject of research, analysis and interpretation. Similarly, new principles should be introduced in this level. Only if we disseminate this subject in the society, anticorruptology gets effective.

2.   Preventive methods:
For the genuine implementation of anticorruptology, the corruption should be controlled by preventive measures. Otherwise, it is difficult to control its expansion. Corruption is like a viral disease in the human body. When one person is infected by the virus of corruption, it spreads to other persons and eventually the whole society becomes corrupt. If it is treated in the beginning, it can’t spread. The treatment of corruption is punishment. Creation of a fair situation where punishment is not required is a preventive methodology. If we implement the preventive measures effectively, corruption can be controlled. This preventive measure can be implemented in three ways:
  1. Civil awareness,
  2. Publicity of anticorruptology,
  3. Social disgust to the corrupt persons.
a.   Civil awareness:
The citizens of a country should be well informed that corruption is a heinous activity. They should participate in the anticorruption movement. Similarly, awareness about corruption and anticorruption in the citizens should be developed. If they are aware about it, the conscious people will bring various activities and movement to control corruption in the society. If they have knowledge about anticorruptology, they will depute corps of volunteers to fight against corruption. Although those conscious people who are influenced from the corrupt mentality should be disregarded. The conscious people should be mobilized to prevent corruption by providing adequate knowledge about it.
b.   Publicity of anticorruptology:
The concept of anticorruptology and anticorruption activities should be publicized to raise public awareness for preventive measures of corruption. The informative notices about corruption like ‘corruption is like a mental disease which starts and spreads from a human itself, it attacks the human mentality. All should be alert from it and go through the anti-corruption path’ which should be broadcast, publicized from radios, newspapers, televisions, internet, telephones and so on. If these types of informative awareness and public notices are publicized from all the media of communication, the preventive measures can be effectively implemented.
c.   Social disgust to the corrupt person:
The most important aspect for a person is the society where he lives. Every person wants dignity in the society. So, they try to do various welfare activities. The society where he doesn’t live, he can’t evaluate his reputation. Even if he is judged, it doesn’t have any values. Therefore, the corrupt person doesn’t want to be identified as a corrupt person. From this perspective, if the corrupt person is boycotted from social relationship, other members of society become discouraged from the corruption-related activities. Moreover, if corrupt person is ousted from the society, corruption is discouraged. Therefore, social disgust and social expulsion of the corrupt persons should be materialised.

3.   Punishment and reward policy:
Punishment policy should be applied on the legal system. Almost all the countries of the world have democratic political system at present. Where there is democracy, there is the rule of law. When there is rule of law, the corrupt persons should be punished as per the provision of law. In most of the countries, the corrupt persons are hunted, inquired and punished according to the legal provision and corrupt persons are penalized by the concerned body based on law. Along with the punishment policy, there should be mechanism to reward those persons who work against corruption. In some countries, the anti-corruption body is constitutionally accepted and established as a constitutional body. In this way, when corrupt persons or communities are penalized, the following measures will be effective:-
  1. Situation during bribing,
  2. Punishment after inspection and investigation,
  3. Complaint and punishment.
 a.   Situation during bribing:
Giving and taking bribe prompts corruption. Bribe is given and taken from a small amount to a great amount in both the governmental and non-governmental services. It is covert in some offices and overt in others. To control this trend of bribery, the giver and taker should be nabbed red-handed. It’s difficult to nab them red-handed. For this, when bribe taker is identified, the corruption controlling agency can provide money to the giver and dramatically, the giver informs the agency about the location where bribe is being given. In this way, the agency can catch them red-handed. But, sincere persons might also be punished by such sponsored activity. It’s not a transparent method but a way to bring the clever corrupts within the parameter of punishment.
b.   Punishment after inspection and investigation:
Corruption is a social crime. Government can take action against such sort of crimes in every country. So, the government installs various governmental agencies to take action against corruption. These legally deployed agencies inspect, monitor, and investigate corruption related activities in the various sectors of country. They decide the level of minor or major corruption committed by the corrupt person/organization and impose minor or major punishment. In this way, while doing such legal dealing, there needs judicial verification. Therefore, general or special court decides which case is serious or not.
c.   Complaint and punishment:
There is a culture of filing and registering complaint to bring the corrupt to book. When a complaint is filed, investigation and inquiry start in accordance to the provision of law. After that, the anti-corruption agency decides the person or not. If it decides to charge, the case is filed in the court. The law of a country ensures the power to punish the criminals in case of corruption or abuse of authority. It takes a long time to investigate the corruption case. This investigation system hasn’t been much effective as it takes too longtime. In both developing and developed countries, the result of judicial verdict comes when the crime is about to be forgotten. So, such result does not have any effect. Meanwhile, there is possibility of movement of the criminals to foreign countries due to the longtime of judicial process. That is why, complaint, judicial investigation and punishment should be done by fast track.

4.   Political system:
A country runs its state affair with a specific political system. Both traditional and modern political systems are run by democratic system. The present time is the age of democracy. No matter whether the government is run by a king or the army or the political parties, all are called democratic systems. So, the state affair can’t be devoid of democracy. How the people are involved in the government system and how many people have access in the system are important. The present political system can be studied as follows:
  1. Party-less political system,
  2. One-party political system,
  3. Multi-party/pluralist political system.
a.   Party-less political system:
It refers to the political system without any political party. There is no place for a political party in this system. All the citizens of a country have uniform faith and doctrine and they engage in the national development. If this party-less system runs for a long time, a country may achieve all-round development within a short period of time. But, this system doesn’t continue for a long time due to the direct and indirect pressure from pluralism. But if it continues, it may give good result.
b.   One-party political system:
One-party system has been practiced in many countries of the world. It was a new practice of 20th century. One group becomes benefitted, which is involved in the government in this political system. The leftist ideology implements this type of system. But it can’t operate the state affair for a long time. If this system gives emphasis to the national development misdeed of their political philosophy, it too promotes development of nation.
c.   Multi-party political system/pluralism
Multiparty political system has been practiced in most of the countries of the world. But, it has given different results in the developing and developed countries. The multiparty system has flourished in the developed countries and they have progressed much. But, the developing countries are unable to enjoy justice and progress due to delayed procedure. Therefore, it is necessary to study how pluralism becomes divergent in the different countries.
  1. Pluralism in the developed countries,
  2. Pluralism in the developing countries.
i.   Pluralism in the developed countries:
Pluralism is practiced successfully in the developed countries because there exist only two or three political parties. If more political parties exist, they become nominal in terms of influence. Moreover, only two parties get opportunity to access state power. Thereby, there remains political stability. One political party rules for four to eight years and gives opportunity to the next party. Due to this culture, the ruling party tries to perform best during its tenure in the competitive manner. So, political stability is maintained. Multi-party system or pluralism can run smoothly and successfully only if there exist two to four political parties. It has been proved by the political system which has been practicing in the developed countries.
ii.  Pluralism in the developing countries:
The multi-party system or pluralism practiced in the developing countries has created many problems. The political system becomes instable due to disharmony among the government system, political parties and awareness level of the citizens. In such political instability, internal conflict may surface and sometimes, the army may seize state power. Such anarchical change may occur in the countries where political instability continues. The weakness of the developing countries is the lack of knowledge of using natural resources and culture. When the developed countries interfere, they explore the resources of developing countries. They get benefit by changing the culture of poor countries. Small and developing countries don’t get chance to utilize resources and become poorer.
The powerful and developed countries encourage many political parties in the developing countries to play their games. They follow the principle of ‘divide and rule’ and promote parties based on ethnic communities. They create confrontation among the parties for their own benefit. So, many political parties exist in the developing countries.
Here, in this whole chapter, we described the components of anticorruptology in detail. Now, let’s see this concept in figure:-

The above figure visualize a human body. The teaching and learning activity in the mind is received by the political system and handles the daily matters. So, established as a main organ of body, the political system should function smoothly in the balanced manner. Therefore, if political system functions well, the whole body may perform more. That’s why, if the four components of anticorruptology i.e. teaching learning technology, controlling methodology, reward and punishment policy and political system are competent and implementable, anticorruptology will become a complete discipline.
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