​Approach to the study of Anticorruptology Anticorruptology Home / Anticorruptology / ​Approach to the study of Anticorruptology
2016 01:12
The methodology of approach to the study of anticorruptology is to be applied from different angles. Anticorruptology is a new subject of study.  Anticorruptology as a discipline is new to academic history. An approach of a discipline open a door for its study. The materials should be available for its in-depth study. Furthermore, anticorruptology is posing a true science. At present, the approach to the study of anticorruptology should be in two stages:

1.   Traditional Approach,
2.   Present Approach.
1.   Traditional Approach
It refers to value, belief and concept available in the area of anticorruption. It also related to customary behaviors directed by religion and culture which have been practiced for many countries. Rules and regulations of anticorruption are found to have developed, followed and established in over the thousands of years. There was a system of virtue and vice about human character. These traditional approaches of anticorruption are divided into different areas:

     a.   Historical,
     b.   Philosophical,
     c.   Religious and cultural,
     d.   Behavioral and Psychological,
     e.   Legal.
a.   Historical:-
Human society had adopted anticorruption from ancient and mediaeval times. It has adopted in present time as well. Good character is considered a virtue and corruption a vice. History points out the virtue and the vice as a cause for deciding life. Corruption has always been defeated; and good conduct and just treatments have always won. Thus, people have adopted anticorruptology along with human civilization. People have stood against corruption openly at different times of history. Similarly, they have openly supported good governance. Therefore, history has assisted the development of anticorruptology.

b.   Philosophical:-
Philosophy is the source of all knowledge. Philosophy is called the science of reality. Corruption is feeble aspect of human nature. Various sorts of thoughts developed time and again by not letting the feeble aspect to dominate. Those thoughts have good encouraged aspects of human nature. Those thoughts and principles have supported the development of anticorruptology. We find the role of philosophy crucial in the development of a discipline on anticorruptology.

c.    Religious and Cultural:-
Religion is a style of spending life in proper and just manner. It accepts spirit within own self and supreme spirit beyond own self. Religion existed along with human civilization and has been taken inseparable space of human life. Although, religious community has been stated in the definition of religion, the community itself is not a religion. Religion is eternal truth which cannot be separated from human life. The custom of continuing the same human religion is called culture. Though, they are seen separate religion and culture have been adopted by world human societies. But the aim of all religions is to make the lifestyle of human beings civilized and cultured. Thus, religion and culture cannot corrupt individual, community and society. If corruption increases religion and culture try to create counter it by just transparent and faithful society. It is the virtue of religion and culture that always stand for anticorruption. Religion dispels all misconception about corruption.

d.    Behavioural and Psychological:-
Human behaviour and psychology are viewed interactively in the area of anticorruptology. Behaviour is human nature. So it is a custom and culture. Human behaviour may be both positive and negative. Whether it’s positive or negative, people do not adopt corrupt behavior. There is no relationship between behavioural tendency and corrupting psychology. Moreover, psychology does not support corruption. Human behaviour and psychology always support activities of anticorruption.

e.    Legal:-
Law is in the form of written document. The policy and conduct to run the state affair are implemented with codified documents in most of the countries. They have been formed and executed for thousands of years. The law establishes human justice by controlling corruption. The law safeguards the principle of social justice in a form of systematic document. It is in favors of truth against falsehood. Therefore, anticorruptology is safeguarded by law.
2)  Present Approach:
Corruption was seen as a complex problem for the development of transparent society. Consequently, the responsible agencies of society realized that corruption has to be objected by different ways and corrupted activities have to be curbed relevantly. With provision of more approaches of anticorruptology as per demand of present time by retaining the traditional approach. In this context, different policies and principles have been applied. They were applied in different countries. Mainly, the present approach cover the following areas:

     a.   Constitutional Provision,
     b.   Good Governance,
     c.   Coordinative methodology,
     d.   Teaching and learning,
     e.   Practical methodology.
a.    Constitutional provision :
Almost all countries of the world have accepted democratic system. The most significant aspect of democracy is the principle of separation of power. According to this principle, legislature, executive and judiciary must be fully independent. It means one must not interfere in the power of another body. In this system, the body responsible against corruption must be independent and autonomous. By accepting the independence and autonomy of that body, there should be constitutional provision for the guarantee of its duties, responsibilities and jurisdictions. The agency can then be strong, powerful and effective to control corruption. Accepting this principle, some countries have provided constitutional provision to anticorruption agencies. On the other hand, some countries have taken this agency within the responsibility of executive body. The executive body is the major agent of exercising state power. So, it may become the main center for corruption to thrive. Thus, anticorruption agency must not be kept under the command of executive body. It should be installed as a separate constitutional body with separation of power.

b.   Good Governance :
Good governance actually means a good governing system. Good governance refers to a situation where both rulers and those outside the government equally feel that the existing government’s system is good. Good governance is the condition where the rule of law transparency public responsibility, right to information, provision of ombudsmen and its legal procedure, local self-governance, decentralization and so on are in practice. The procedure of good governance supports to execute the principle of anticorruptology. Similarly, there is good governance in the countries where principle, methodology and procedure of anticorruptology have been adopted. In present context, anticorruptology and good governance must be complementary with each other.

c.   Coordination methodology :
It refers to advent of coordination among all concerned agencies against corruption. Coordination links all the agencies which are responsible for handling the present society. There are many other subjects like good governance, practical methodology, teaching and learning for anticorruption activity. The theme of coordination methodology is to involve all of them for anticorruptology in a balanced manner. This methodology energizes anticorruptology. If this methodology works effectively; all the elements of anticorruption will be actively executed and united in coordination methodology. In this way, this methodology becomes effective.

d.   Teaching and Learning :
Anticorruptology is as a social science and corruption is a social problem. This subject has to be included in teaching and learning. Maximum numbers of people have to be involved in it. This subject has to be started from lower level of study. But due to lack of teaching, learning materials, it cannot be taught from that level. Therefore, all the universities in the world are obligated to include this subject in the curriculum of post-graduate level. Before teaching this subject, in the post-graduate level, subject specialists and semi-specialists have to be produced. For that purpose, post-graduate students of all subjects of Humanities and Social Science faculty have to be encouraged to carry out research works in this area of study. It helps to produce semi specialist. Those-semi specialists emerge as experts by enabling them to pursue doctorate degree in anticorruptology. When subject experts are produced, they should be encouraged to write text books for primary to higher secondary level. Anticorruptology can be taught from lower to higher academic level. In this way, we can help the study of anticorruptology by expanding the area of teaching and learning. Similarly, this subject can be developed as a worldwide discipline of teaching and learning.

e.   Practical Methodology:-
This practical methodology can be applied in the area of social sciences like in natural science. It is a method of drawing scientific conclusions from the experiments in the laboratory. The laboratory of sociology is the society of the country. But the laboratory of anticorruptology extends to executive body, judiciary and legislature of that country. In addition to these agencies, the political parties and all the government bodies also come under the laboratory of anticorruption. In all those agencies, corruption can be measured by observation, testing, monitoring and evaluating according to the methodology of anticorruptology. Conclusion can be drawn and result becomes evident. If the methodology is implemented properly, the increasing tendency of corruption can be prevented and controlled.
Situation and influence in the figure:

We can see different factors influencing one another.
Present                                                                              Historical
  1. Constitution                                        =                      5.         Law approach
  2. Good governance                                =                      4.         Practical and psychological
  3. Coordinative method                          =                      3.         Religious and cultural
  4. Teaching and learning                         =                      2.         Philosophical
  5. Practical method                                 =                      1.         Historical
They are situated parallel. However, each other has influenced fully. This is in the real scientific fact and proved truth. Therefore, traditional and present approaches are not really different. Though, there may not be varying in the theory of function. From this way that can be cleared in accordance with the guidelines of historical approach present approach can be seemed to be ascertained. It is clear whether due to the historical approach or present approach that has been ascertained.
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